This ExpressVPN review isn’t regarding only the performance of the VPN, but rather depends on whether it, being one of the industries finest, is still worthy of being on the top of the list in 2020.
When choosing a VPN, you mostly look for one with the best overall features. And, let me just tell you one thing, for those who are completely new to the VPN world, ExpressVPN is by far one of the most powerful VPNs in the business.
They, of course, did not make it that high on the grid because of their fancy name, nor due to some publicity stunt. This provider made it by providing top of the line speeds, access to restricted streaming services, A-grade security features and much more.
However, all those who are already invested in this service, often complain about certain features not being fully functional or either about the price being too high. I’m going to put the entire VPN under the microscope and state my conclusion as to whether it still outshines in overall performance, compared to other VPNs in the same ranking.
ExpressVPN Review – At first sight
|Base||British Virgin Islands|
|Servers||3000+ servers in 94 countries|
Before we move ahead with my rating criteria, here is a little about what ExpressVPN claims to provide. This will help you understand a little better about what you’ll be working against; if one of their claims turns out to be false.
- ExpressVPN hails from the British Virgin Islands, a privacy-friendly region.
- It has around 3000+ servers in 94 countries.
- It gives you access to unrestricted streaming services like Netflix and Disney Plus.
- Has a strong security backing like IP and DNS leak protection. Will be tested further on.
- Fast download speeds. To be tested further on.
- Compatible with streaming and P2P file sharing.
- A functional Kill Switch.
ExpressVPN according to my rating criteria
Here’s the deal. ExpressVPN is known to be one of the most expensive VPNs according to many users. But, here’s a fact, you should only find a product expensive if it fails to deliver in performance or fails to deliver in quality.
If you’re thinking of buying into ExpressVPN, you have every right to know that what you’re investing in, is worth your money and time.
However, looking at the bigger picture, you must always know what exactly you’re looking for in a VPN. Besides going through the best VPN reviews, I also follow a certain criterion to test out whether the VPN is good or not.
In my ExpressVPN review, I’ll be testing out the quality of the provider based on the following:
Location – Is ExpressVPN part of a safe region?
With having been in the VPN business for almost 12 years, ExpressVPN is said to be one of the most privacy-friendly VPNs to date. It is based in the British Virgin Islands, which is said to be one of the safest jurisdictions around, mainly for businesses that look for the ultimate privacy.
Trust me, its location is an important factor. The British Virgin Islands is completely out of the 14-eyes jurisdiction. With that being said, it automatically holds high privacy standards.
Since we’re talking about how safe the ExpressVPN location is, let’s talk about what it has to offer us in terms of server coverage. ExpressVPN is known to cover a massive ground on server locations. It has around 3000+ servers with a huge coverage spread across 94 countries worldwide. The locations with the widest server coverage are Canada, the US, Germany, France, Brazil, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland, Spain, Sweden, UK, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Australia, South Korea, and Taiwan.
I’m not saying that VPNs with slightly less server coverage are completely useless. But, since ExpressVPN is said to be one of the expensive VPNs, it should have the goods to support it. And it turns out that ExpressVPNs wide server coverage is a plus point.
Having not a big, but a smart server coverage is the best thing for you, especially where streaming is concerned.
It’s like, if you live in India and want to gain access to Indian local content while traveling to China, a country with strict censorships, you’ll probably have to connect to an Indian server for the best results.
Speaking of, does ExpressVPN work in China?
Yes, it does!
ExpressVPN’s Stealth Servers are based in Hong-Kong and specifically designed to defeat online censorship in mainland China and wherever VPNs are blocked. Although ExpressVPN hasn’t opened up about how these stealth servers work, however, from evaluation, they work pretty darn well.
It’s sometimes really difficult to access a VPN provider’s website to sign up, let alone defeat online censorship in China with a VPN. However, stealth servers can be just the thing you need to do that.
Other than that, ExpressVPN among other top-grade VPN providers are capable of unblocking much more in China, like YouTube and Whatsapp!
Security – Discussing its Express encryption and other features
Buying a VPN without any basic security measures is like cutting a piece of meat with an unsharpened knife. The procedure will be long and you could get cut. In the same way, a VPN without any basic or necessary security measures is utterly pointless.
Most VPNs claim to have the best security, speeds, and stability. However, I think you and I both know that it’s not always the case. To find out if a VPN possesses a strong security backing…You need to test it out!
Besides having great speed results, ExpressVPN is also known to provide a great security blanket. Let’s weigh out its features. We start with its:
Encryption according to me is a far more important security feature than malware protection. A VPNs encryption protects and secures your data from leaking out. With it, your privacy remains intact. The most unbreakable kind of encryption is 256-bit AES.
Luckily, ExpressVPN operates on an AES 256-bit cipher with 4096-bit RSA key and SHA-512 HMAC authentication, and has a support towards Perfect Forward Secrecy.
One of the main protocols that every VPN should possess, is the OpenVPN protocol. ExpressVPN supports not only the OpenVPN (UDP/TCP) protocols on all its Express servers, but also supports IPSec, L2TP, IKEv2, and PPTP. When you open the app, you’ll be able to choose any protocol you wish to go with. Here’s a snapshot from the Windows client:
Okay, so when choosing a VPN, make sure you always ask the support chat whether they have a Kill Switch on the VPN or not. A Kill Switch is another important feature that’ll protect your privacy and data even after the VPN connection drops unexpectedly.
ExpressVPN does come with an active Kill Switch by the name Network Lock. You’ll find this option already present by default in the Windows client.
However, sadly, this doesn’t apply to iOS devices, which many top VPN providers fail to add. I even double-checked with the support team.
On its list of features, the ExpressVPN app comes with a Smart Location feature. It connects you to the best server according to your location. The feature runs an algorithm that ranks server locations based on key metrics like distance, latency, and download speed.
Besides a functional Kill Switch, ExpressVPN includes other advanced security features in its app. These include:
- IPv6 leak protection – this will make sure that all the activities you carry out online and across multiple platforms, using any supported device; stays anonymous and private. With the IPv6 feature enabled, your IP, location, and identity are all intact and secured.
- DNS protection – ExpressVPN runs its own encrypted DNS servers. This will give you double the protection, making sure that you are IP and DNS leak-free.
- MediaStreamer – apart from including DNS protected servers, ExpressVPN has an advanced feature by the name of MediaStreamer. This allows you to bypass or connect with any or multiple restricted streaming services worldwide.
Other than this, there are certain devices like a first-generation Firestick/FireTV, Roku, or Chromecast that most VPNs including ExpressVPN that don’t have dedicated apps for it. However, the great thing about the ExpressVPN MediaStreamer is the fact that it can unblock multiple blocked streaming services.
So, to get started with devices like these, all you need to do is replace the default DNS servers of your device, through your Wi-Fi.
- TOR Adding an extra layer of anonymity and protection, ExpressVPN is compatible with TOR. This will probably give you all the freedom you need to browse the internet with unrestricted freedom, even if it’s on the dark web.
ExpressVPN general settings
The ExpressVPN general settings tab is where you’ll find the default Kill Switch and Split-Tunneling feature, which was discussed above. When you are signed into the app and launch it, go into the general settings. You’ll find a few options that look like this:
In these settings, you’ll find a few basic settings regarding the launch of the app when you start your device, or whether you’d want to connect to the last location you last used.
Then we have the Kill Switch. Once you activate the Kill Switch “Network Lock” feature, you don’t need to keep manually doing it, every time you start-up the app. Other than that, you have the split-tunneling feature, where you’ll have three more options to choose from.
Next, I’ll be discussing and testing whether ExpressVPN is IP, DNS and WebRTC leak protected. This is a huge inclusion in its security prospectus.
CON – One thing I wouldn’t exactly deem as positive is the fact that like most VPN providers, ExpressVPN doesn’t include Malware or Ad-blocking into its list of features.
Invisibility – Is there a loophole in DNS, IP, and WebRTC protection?
After having conducted a few tests, ExpressVPN came out positive. See the results below!
ExpressVPN, I repeat is a renowned VPN provider, mainly known for its speeds and access to restricted streaming services, from anywhere in the world. This aspect will only be regarded as a perk, if the VPN user’s identity and physical location is in check.
For that to succeed, ExpressVPN needs to be completely leak protected. Below you’ll find out whether ExpressVPN exposes your IP address, and leaks your DNS/WebRTC. To test these out, I will connect to a US and Asian Pacific server, for double confirmation.
For my IP leak test, I conducted it through ipleak.org, while connected to a US and an Asian Pacific server. The results were:
US server (New York)
Asian Pacific server (Singapore-Marina Bay)
For my DNS leak test, I conducted it through dnsleaktest.com, while connected to a US and an Asian Pacific server. The results were:
US server (New York)
Asian Pacific server (Singapore-Marina Bay)
For my WebRTC leak test, I conducted it through browserleaks.com, while connected to a US and an Asian Pacific server. The results were:
US server (New York)
Asian Pacific server (Singapore-Marina Bay)
All are 3 tests connected to two different server locations, are leak-free!
Streaming – Can I unblock Netflix with ExpressVPN?
Yes, you can!
Like I said, ExpressVPN is known for being able to smoothly access restricted streaming platforms from wherever you may be.
Everyone who’s tried to access Netflix from abroad knows that it is protected with advanced security mechanism to stop international users from accessing its service.
But don’t worry about that because ExpressVPN does unblocks Netflix without any problems. Yes, I checked! However, to unblock the US Netflix from outside the States, just connect to any of ExpressVPN’s US servers. My personal preferences are the New York or Los Angles servers, since they worked great for me.
Just in case you’re trying to unblock more than just the US Netflix library, ExpressVPN has servers spread all over the globe. This will make it easier for you to gain access to multiple other Netflix libraries.
To test out its functionality, I connected to a US (New York), German, and a South African server. It worked smoothly! However, when I connected to the Chile and Ukraine servers on ExpressVPN, I was able to unblock only a certain amount of movies. They were all in HD and loaded extremely fast.
When I tried accessing some movies that are mostly for the people of the US, I was redirected to a pop-up that said:
All-in-all, I am pretty happy with the results. This is mostly because, having tested out many VPN providers, ExpressVPN is by far one of the few that worked.
The point of connecting to different servers in each continent, was only to show that you can easily unblock all the US Netflix movies from abroad, as well as still gain access to other libraries when traveling out of your country.
Don’t panic, if ever you’re redirected with the pop-up shown above. The only important thing is having the US servers work well for unblocking mass amounts of movies and TV shows from abroad.
Can I access other services with ExpressVPN?
Yes, you can!
When I said I’ll be testing out every detail thoroughly, I meant it. And, just so you know, ExpressVPN is among some of the best VPN providers that can still unblock multiple streaming platforms besides Netflix.
I’ve tested it out on Amazon Prime Video, Hulu, Hotstar, BBC iPlayer, and Disney Plus, as well, connecting to both UK and US servers. For Hotstar, I connected to one of the Indian ExpressVPN servers, to access all the Bollywood shows.
Torrenting – Is ExpressVPN safe for torrenting?
Yes, it is.
Most ExpressVPN users already know that the VPN provides a strong P2P support, which is why the question all comes down to whether or not ExpressVPN makes a safe option for torrenting in general.
We’ve gone through its security details, and that included whether or not ExpressVPN is IP and DNS leak protected. Looking at the results I rendered, while being connected to two different server locations for accurate results, only proved that torrenting securely and anonymously is safe with ExpressVPN.
When I contacted the chat support and asked them if there were any specific servers for torrenting, they mentioned that there wasn’t. And, that to get the best results, you should use the “smart connect” option that will connect you to the best server according to your location. In short, it offers P2P optimized servers.
However, since torrenting is restricted in most parts of the world, and considered as illegal if you download copyrighted content, make sure you connect to server locations of countries that allow torrenting, like the Netherlands and Switzerland.
On the other hand, have you heard of Popcorn Time? Since it’s a free streaming service that uses a torrenting client, you’re most probably going to have to connect to P2P supported servers for its access. Turns out, ExpressVPN works great for unblocking
Speed – Does ExpressVPN provide fast speeds?
Yes, it does.
As a rule, a VPN generally will not provide you with speeds that are faster than the speeds of your local connection. A VPN is, therefore, only meant to make your speeds steady, without slowing it down below the required degree.
For instance, the required speeds for streaming or torrenting 4K HD content, is 25Mbps. And, anything below that is considered terrible. So, according to that and according to the most widely used streaming platforms, I tested out the ExpressVPN speeds using the best server locations.
Before connecting to the VPN, I tested out the speed of local connection, without connecting to the VPN, using speedtest.net. The results were:
Following you’ll find the speed results after connecting to the VPN, using:
Speeds using the ExpressVPN UK server
Speeds using the ExpressVPN US server
Speeds using the ExpressVPN Canadian server
Speeds using the ExpressVPN Australian server
With all honesty, I’ve tested out plenty of top-grade VPNs, and as much as each provider outshone the rest in various ways, I still believe ExpressVPN has given me the best speed results, especially, because the speeds never sank below 50Mbps using various servers.
Compatibility – ExpressVPN? Do we have your support?
When taking a look at a great VPN, its performance goes far beyond than just having great download speeds or the best security. I bet you knew that already, didn’t you! A good VPN provider needs to be able to give its users a great bit of device compatibility.
That means it should be able to support multiple yet major devices and apps, and along with that offer simultaneous device connections. It’s a must!
ExpressVPN multi-device connections
And, since we’re on the topic of simultaneous device support, ExpressVPN extends its security by allowing you to cover up-to 5 multi-device connections.
When we talk about ExpressVPN’s device compatible, support and security, the VPN works with covering all the major apps and devices for:
- Kindle Fire
- Nook HD
- Browser Extensions (Chrome/Firefox)
- Gaming consoles
- Smart TVs
- Nvidia Shield
ExpressVPN – Windows and macOS
Like many other top VPNs for Windows, ExpressVPN is among the few that support all the versions of Windows 7, 8, and 10. The windows client is extremely fool-proof to operate. When you sign in, you’ll be faced with the front cover of the app which will give you the option of using “Smart Connect”. This connects you to the best server location for you.
The macOS client in comparison is completely similar in appearance, usability and in features.
Other than that, both offer 4 different boxes labeled according to the locations’ continents. This makes it easier for you to choose the server you require, depending on what streaming service or website you’re trying to access.
The windows and macOS client comes with a variety of protocols that you can choose from, a network lock kill switch, by default, split-tunneling and IPv6 leak protection. Other than that, the apps offers a speed test, in which you test out the latency and download speed of the servers.
ExpressVPN and Android
The ExpressVPN client for Android can be bought from the Google Play Store, since there’s a dedicated app for it. The user interface of the app is quite similar in functionality as compared to the Windows version.
Just like Windows, the Android app includes a smart connect option that immediately connects you to the best server location according to your region. However, the difference is that it connects you instantly to the next server without having to disconnect to the VPN between server switches.
It also has a split-tunneling feature, for you to choose which websites or apps you want running through the VPNs encrypted tunnel and which ones you don’t. Besides its navigational purposes, there are some setbacks in the Android app.
These minor differences are what makes the Android app less intriguing in comparison. For instance, the Android app only provides you with a choice between OpenVPN UDP and TCP protocols, no speed test and doesn’t provide any IPv6 leak protection.
ExpressVPN and iOS
The iOS ExpressVPN client, just like its Android and Windows counterparts are quite easy to navigate through. However, there are many differences between the apps of these 3 widely used devices.
For instance, the Android app comes with a Kill Switch, whereas the iOS client doesn’t. The iOS app comes with more than just the OpenVPN (UDP/TCP) protocol. It also has the option of L2TP and IKEv2 protocols. The iOS app also comes with an auto-connect option just in case the VPN connection drops.
On the other hand, both Android and iOS come with similarities like the smart connect option, allowing you to connect to the VPN with a single click of a button.
The great thing about both Android and iOS is that unlike the other devices, they both come with a 7-day free trial and a 30-day refund policy.
ExpressVPNs Browser Extensions
Besides ExpressVPN having a dedicated app for all the major devices, it also has a support towards browser extensions, Chrome and Firefox. This is necessary for anyone who spends almost all their time online, surfing through browsers.
These browser extensions are only compatible with Windows, Linux, and macOS and will only work to encrypt the traffic that passes through the browsers itself, and not towards any additional apps on your device. To use it, you’ll have to download the app from the Google or Apple stores.
These extensions, however, only come with basic usages, like instant connections to multiple servers and geo-spoofing your physical location through it. There aren’t any additional advanced or basic features added.
ExpressVPN and Routers
Just in case you have a device that ExpressVPN doesn’t have an app for, or maybe you’d like to exceed its 5 device limit, ExpressVPN also has a huge support towards routers. Now you can manually set up ExpressVPN on a supported router, and extend its connectivity to innumerable device connections.
The best part about using a VPN on your router is the fact that it will just count as one device connection. You’ll be able to connect to more devices than imaginable, such as Nvidia Shield, etc.
So, for example, you can use ExpressVPN on your Windows, Android, iOS, macOS, and a router that will connect to various other devices in one subscription. Using ExpressVPN on your router to connect to unlimited devices, will not slow down your experience. In fact, the results will give you steady and speedy results.
Here’s a quick glimpse at all the Routers that ExpressVPN can be connected to:
It does take slightly longer for you to set up ExpressVPN on a router. However, not to worry, ExpressVPN comes with a huge list of tutorials on its webpage that’ll show you all its supported routers and tutorials on each of them.
You just have to select the router model you have, and follow through with its tutorials. The best part about using ExpressVPN on a router is the perks it comes with. The advantages include using a (Kill Switch), server switching with one click and a split-tunneling feature.
Reliability – How safe are you with ExpressVPN?
Okay, so, remember the part where I mentioned the necessity of knowing whether a VPNs location of origin is a safe one and out of the 14-eyes jurisdiction? Apart from that, other necessary factors revolve around the privacy and no-logging policies that a VPN provider abides by.
So, since we know that the security backing that ExpressVPN offers is more than reliable, let’s take a look at its privacy policies. This proves how safe and reliable a VPN provider they are. So, let’s first take a look at:
It’s extremely common for a VPN provider to claim that they follow a no-logging policy and then render the opposite results. As in the case of ExpressVPN, their privacy policies seem to be exempt from any false calamities.
If you head over to their webpage and click on the option of “What is VPN”, you’ll find an option that says “Privacy Safeguards”, where you’ll understand every piece of data that ExpressVPN logs and doesn’t log. In short, they deliver a clear message that your privacy is your right and that you are deserving of unrestricted internet freedom.
- The collect all the apps that are connected with the VPN
- The date you connected to the VPN
- Which server location you used
- The amount of data you used in a day
- Your Email information, mainly to send daily alerts etc.
All-in-all, the information that ExpressVPN collects, is void of any important information. All the data they collect will not in any way harm your privacy. They mainly collect this information for technical support issues and to guide you through a solution to these problems.
Trust Pilot review
To get the best results in knowing what other ExpressVPN users thought about the VPN, Trust Pilot is where you should go. There are really great ratings on ExpressVPN, with a rating of nearly 87% positive reviews from nearly 4000+ users worldwide.
24/7 customer support
One of the great parts about ExpressVPN is the fact that they have a reliable chat support. Customer support goes a long way in assisting users and potential buyers will all sorts of inquiries. The ExpressVPN live chat was more than helpful with the unlimited questions I asked. All the results you see in this ExpressVPN review, are results of double-checking with the support chat.
The ExpressVPN support divides itself into 3 options of:
- Troubleshoot Now
- Live Chat
- Get Instructions
If neither of these 3 options have met up with your standards or requirements, they have further divided their support towards:
Other than these, there’s also the FAQ section, just in case the live chat isn’t at your disposal.
What the Reddit community had to say
I’m not a believer in just one opinion. The testing results can always vary from user to user. To check if ExpressVPN did work great for others, I trust no source other that the views of the Reddit community. Here’s what one Reddit user had to say:
Here’s another view from the Reddit community regarding ExpressVPN:
To which other Redditors replied:
Pricing – Is ExpressVPN worth my money?
Yes, it is!
I always discuss the price of the VPN I’m testing/reviewing before anything else. That’s mostly because the VPN users are more interested in the price they’re about to pay. However, in this case, I discussed the price of ExpressVPN at the very end mostly because it is one of the most well-renowned providers in the industry.
Everyone in the VPN world knows that ExpressVPN is a bit pricier than many other providers. However, the point was mainly discussing whether or not ExpressVPN should still be considered as one of the best according to its performance and by public review.
Looking at all the amazing features and additional perks that ExpressVPN comes with, only now can I say whether or not it truly is reasonable. Let’s take a look at what we have:
The ExpressVPN pricing plan breaks into 3 packages:
- The 1-month plan is $12.95/mo. (Most expensive)
- The 6-months plan is $9.99/mo.
- The 1-year plan is $6.67/mo. + 3 months free! (Saving you 49%)
Along with this, ExpressVPN also offers a 7-day free trial for mobile devices! This gives you time to test the VPN out before settling with it in the long run.
ExpressVPN payment method
ExpressVPN has a variety of payment methods that you can choose from. They are:
- Credit cards
The ExpressVPN refund policy
Usually, most VPN providers offer a free trial, but since ExpressVPN is one of the few providers that actually work, it has a direct refund policy of 30-days. This gives you ample time to test the VPNs premium features out, along with its DNS and IP leaks, if any.
However, to avail of a full refund, you need to contact the support and ask them for a refund within the 30-day timeframe and not any time after that. Be sure to always go through its terms of service for a clearer picture.
Below you’ll find some of the most frequently asked questions regarding ExpressVPN, they are:
How do I get started with ExpressVPN?
It’s honestly really easy! All you have to do is:
- First, you subscribe to ExpressVPN by choosing a price package.
- Create your account, using an email ID and a password.
- Download the app, and install it.
- Once downloaded, launch the app.
- Connect to the best server for you.
- Open up a restricted streaming service or website and start binging!
What do I do when ExpressVPN won’t connect?
Sometimes, it may take more work than required to get started with ExpressVPN. However, just in case you are met with some issues while trying to connect to the VPN, here’s what you should consider:
- Make sure that your internet is working properly.
- Fidget with the server locations until you find the best one for your requirements.
- Check to see if you disabled your firewall or anti-virus etc. Sometimes these can restrict certain websites from opening up.
- Fidget with the protocols until one is more suitable.
- Make sure your ExpressVPN app is always up-to-date.
- Contact your support team for more questions.
Is ExpressVPN the real deal?
Indeed, ExpressVPN views will always vary from person to person, but if I’m being practical, ExpressVPN is legit! Of course, it runs its own issues just like every other provider, but so far looking at its server list, speed, and other advanced features, it makes one of the best VPN services.
Is it legal to use ExpressVPN?
Yes, ExpressVPN is legal to use. However, always keep in mind that laws vary from country to country depending on whether VPNs are legal or not. There are countries like China and Russia that hold extremely strict censorship laws, using a VPN, in general, is a big risk. But, many users seem to turn to ExpressVPN mainly because of the privacy laws it observes.
Is ExpressVPN extremely pricey?
ExpressVPN costs around $12.95/mo. but provides robust features and performance that are well worth the price. However, it does offer other packages that you can choose from, with the most reasonable one being around $6.67/mo. for 15 months. ExpressVPN always has amazing discounts regularly, so keep an eye out for it!
Why is ExpressVPN slowing down my speed?
As I said, there are different speed results for different users. The speed results I obtained were quite satisfactory. However, if your speeds are terribly slow, you can address the issue by:
- Close and restart your VPN device
- Make sure all your devices and router firmware are up-to-date.
- Check to see if your ISP is the root cause of it.
Why can’t I use NordVPN instead of ExpressVPN?
Honestly, the choice is yours. According to me, I’ve found many users recommend and use ExpressVPN for more than NordVPN. Yes, NordVPN is another top provider and cheaper too, but I found ExpressVPN’s overall performance to unblock Netflix and more, much more superior.
To conclude – Do I recommend ExpressVPN?
Of course, I do!
Yes, it is pricey, but, does it offer you services that actually work? Yes, it does!
Coming to the end of my ExpressVPN review, we’ve covered pretty much all the main points that needed looking into, which puts ExpressVPN among the small list of the best VPN services.
ExpressVPN covers great security, has a split-tunneling feature, produced extremely reliable speeds, unblocked Netflix and other streaming services for me. Along with that, it is torrenting/P2P compatible, didn’t leak my IP, WebRTC, nor DNS, and it works in China. That’s a win-win!
Trust me when I say this, and I’m pretty sure most VPN users are already aware of the fact that they often get ripped off into paying for a VPN that ends up not serving its purpose. Many VPN providers often promise a huge platform of servers that unblock so and so streaming service. But, it never works!
The reason why I am so thrilled about ExpressVPN is mainly the fact that having tried many of its servers, I managed to unblock a whole variety of streaming services with it. So, in comparison with its high price per month, ExpressVPN does put its money where its mouth is, providing robust security and FUNCTIONAL advanced features.